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ملائشیا Malaysia

Offline Haji Hasan

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ملائشیا Malaysia
« on: December 09, 2007, 09:08:43 PM »


ملائشیا Malaysia


ملائشیا كا دارالحكومت كوالالمپور ہے۔ یہاں كی كرنسی رنگٹ یعنی ملائشی ڈالر ہے۔

ملائشیا تقریبا تیرہ ریاستوں پر مشتمل ہے۔ اس كی زیادہ تر آبادی مسلمان ہے۔ ملائشیا میں 63 فی صد چینی رہتے ہیں۔ یہاں كی سب سے بڑی صنعت ربڑ اور ٹن ہے۔ دنیا كا 53فی صد ربڑ اور ٹن ملائشیا سے حاصل ہوتا ہے۔ یہاں كی فی ایكڑ قابل كاشت اراضی كم ہےمگر پھر بھی تقریباً ١٥ فی صد لوگ زراعت سے وابستہ ہیں۔

ملائشیا كا مغربی علاقہ استوائی جنگل پر مشتمل ہے۔ كچھ حصہ ساحلی اور ریگستانی ہے۔ یہاں پر درختوں كی بہتات ہے۔ اسی وجہ سے ملائشیا كی لكڑی كی مانگ پوری دنیا میں ہے۔ یہاں كی شرح تعلیم ٠٦ فی صد ہے۔ یہاں پر انگریزی كے علاقہ تامل اور چینی زبان بولی جاتی ہے۔ اگرچہ سركاری زبان ملائی ہے۔ ملائشیا اقوام متحدہ ، دولت مشتركہ،اسلامی كانفرنس كی تنظیم، غیر جانبدار ملكوں كی تنظیم اور اپسیان كا ركن ہے۔

آج سے چند سال پہلے یہاں كاویزا حاصل كرنا مشكل نہ تھا۔ بلكہ پاكستان كے ساتھ انٹری تھی ۔ اب ویزا پاكستان سے حاصل كرنا ہوتاہے۔ ویزا حاصل كرنا اتنا مشكل نہیں ہے۔ چند ایك شرائط پوری كرنے سے ویزا مل جاتا ہے۔

اگر كاروباری افراد ہیں تو كاروبار كا ثبوت۔

كسی كاروباری فرما كا معاہدہ تجارت۔

كاروبار كی جسامت

چیمبر آف كامرس كا ممبر شپ اور سفارشی لیٹر۔

دو طرفہ ٹكٹ كنفرم تاریخوں كی۔

كم از كم 1000 امریكن ڈالر۔

دو عدد تصاویر پاسپورٹ سائز۔

اگر كاروبار كرنا چاہتے ہیں تو كم از كم 10000 ہزار امریكن ڈالر كا ثبوت۔

مندرجہ بالا شرائط پوری كرنے سے ملائشیا كا ویزا مل جاتا ہے۔ تاہم اگر آپ كاروبار یاانویسٹمنٹ كرنا چاہتے ہیں اور دس ہزار ڈالر امریكن سے زیادہ رقم لگانا چاہتے ہیں تو بغیركسی حیل و حجت كے ویزا جاری كر دیا جاتا ہے۔ تاہم آپ اس بات كا ثبوت دینے كے پابند ہوںگے كہ متعلقہ رقم آپ نے ملائشیا شفٹ كر دی ہے یا آپ كے پاس ہے اور وہاں فلاں كاروبارمیں لگائے گئے۔ ملائشیا نے صنعتی میدان میں تیزی سے ترقی كی ہے۔ اسی ترقی كی وجہ سے آج ملائشیا ترقی پذیر ممالك كی صف میں پہلے نمبر پر ہے۔ جاپان سے باہمی اشتراك كی وجہ سے ملائشیا میں بہت سی صنعتیں قائم ہوئی ہیں۔ اسی صنعتی ترقی كی وجہ سے پسماندہ ممالك كے لوگ ملائشیا میں كام كرنے كی غرض سے جا رہے ہیں۔

پاكستانی افراد كی تعداد بھی ملائشیا میں كافی ہے۔ عام طور پر ایك فرد 20 ہزار سے 30ہزار تك آسانی سے كما سكتا ہے۔ اسی لیے بہت سے لوگ مڈل ایسٹ یا یورپ جانے كی بجائے ملائشیا كو ترجیح دیتے ہیں۔ اسی لیے ایجنٹ حضرات سادہ لوح لوگوں كو دل كھول كر لوٹتے ہیں۔

ملائشیا كا ایجنٹ حضرات عام طور پر ٠٧ سے ٠٨ ہزار روپے لیتے ہیں اور لوگوں كو دوسرے ممالك كے پاسپورٹ پر بھیج دیتے ہیں اور اگر بندہ پكڑا جائے تو اسے جرمانہ بھی اور سزا بھی ہو جاتی ہے اور اگر نكل جائے توایجنٹ كو فائدہ ہو جاتاہے۔ اس لیے كوشش كریں كہ خود ایمبیسی جا كر ویزا حاصل كریں۔

وہ لوگ جن كو ویزا حاصل كرنے كی ضرورت نہیں

ملائشیا كے شہری۔

برطانیہ كے شہری اور اس كی كالونیز كے رہائشی۔

آسٹریلیا، باربوداس، كینیڈا، فجی، جمیكا، كوریا ری پبلك، نیوزی لینڈ، نائجیریا، ماریشیش،مالٹا، گیمبیا، غانا، سنگاپور، جاپان، نیدر لینڈ، جرمنی، فلپائن، سپین، سوئس لینڈ، تنزانیہ،زمبابوے، بلجیم، امریكہ، ڈنمارك، فن لینڈ، فرانس، آئرلینڈ، لكسمبرگ، ناروے، سویڈن، سان مارنیو، تیونس، یوگنڈ۔ ان ممالك كے لوگ بغیر ویزا كے آ سكتے ہیں۔

ٹرانزٹ ویزا سوائے اسرائیل كے لوگوں كے سب كو دے دیا جاتا ہے اگر فلائٹ Conecting ہو تو اسرائیل كے لوگوں كو بھی ائیرپورٹ كی حدود میں ٹرانزٹ دے دیا جاتا ہے۔ تائیوان كےپاسپورٹ حامل افراد كو داخلہ نہیں دیا جاتا۔ اسی طرح ہپی افراد كو داخلہ نہیں دیا جاتا۔

اقوام متحدہ كے عملہ كے افراد ڈیوٹی پر۔

سركاری سیاسی پاسپورٹ كے حامل افراد ویزا كے بغیر ملائشیا آ جا سكتے ہیں۔ ٹریول ڈاكومنٹ مندرجہ بالا ممالك كے لیے ویزا كی ضرورت نہیں


Offline iram

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Education in Malaysia
« Reply #1 on: April 20, 2008, 04:54:37 PM »
Education in Malaysia

Characteristics

Education in Malaysia broadly consists of a set of stages which are:

    * Pre-school
    * Primary Education
    * Secondary Education
    * Tertiary Education
    * Postgraduate

Only Primary Education in Malaysia is mandated by law, hence it is not a criminal offence to neglect the educational needs of a child after six years of Primary Education.

Primary and secondary education in government schools is handled by the Ministry of Education, but policies regarding tertiary education are handled by the Ministry of Higher Education, created in 2004.

Starting in 2003, the government introduced the use of English as a medium of teaching in all science subjects, although this creates a discrimination between students who are and who are not fluent in English.

Offline iram

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Pre-School and Pre-University in Malaysia
« Reply #2 on: April 20, 2008, 04:58:19 PM »
Pre-School

Attendance in a pre-school programme is not universal and generally only affluent families can afford to send their children to private, for profit pre-schools.

The government has no formal pre-school curriculum for pre-schoolers except a formal mandatory training and certification to principals and teachers before they can operate a pre-school. The training covers lessons on child psychology, teaching methodologies, and other related curriculum on childcare and development.

Registered pre-schools are subjected to zoning regulations and must comply to other regulations such as health screening and fire hazard assessment. Many of the preschools are located in high density residential areas where normal residences which comply to the regulations of the Welfare Ministry is converted for this purpose. Some private schools have pre-school sections. Other pre-school programmes are run by religious groups.

Primary

Primary education consists of six years of education, referred to as Year 1 to Year 6 (also known as Standard 1 to Standard 6). Year 1 to Year 3 are classified as Level One (Tahap Satu in Malay) while Year 4 to Year 6 are considered as Level Two (Tahap Dua). Primary education begins at the age of 7 and ends at 12. Students are promoted to the next year regardless of their academic performance.

From 1996 until 2000, the Penilaian Tahap Satu (PTS) or the Level One Evaluation was administered to Year 3 students. Excellence in this test allowed students to skip Year 4 and attend Year 5 instead. However, the test was removed from 2001 onwards due to concerns that parents and teachers were unduly pressuring students to pass the exam.

At the end of primary education, students in national schools are required to undergo a standardised test known as the Ujian Pencapaian Sekolah Rendah (UPSR) or Primary School Evaluation Test. The subjects tested are Malay comprehension, written Malay, English, Science and Mathematics. Previously, Chinese and Tamil comprehension along with written Chinese and Tamil are optional subjects for Chinese and Tamil vernacular schools.

In January 2003, a mixed medium of instruction was introduced so that Standard 1 students would learn Science and Mathematics in English whilst other subjects are taught in Malay. Chinese and Tamil vernacular schools generally conduct classes in Mandarin and Tamil respectively. Recently, Tamil schools have also begun to employ English for teaching Science and Mathematics and currently, Chinese schools teach Science and Mathematics in both English and Chinese. Participation in the UPSR is not compulsory, but all vernacular schools also administer the UPSR to their students as this allows for re-integration of their students into national schools for secondary education.[citation needed]

The division of public education at the primary level into national and national-type school has been criticised for allegedly creating racial polarisation at an early age. In the 1970s, around half of all Chinese parents sent their students to national schools; as of 2006, the same figure stood at 6%. Lim Guan Eng of the opposition Democratic Action Party stated that ""When I was growing up in Malaysia, going to national schools, I never imagined that the country would become so polarized." Non-Malays, Chinese in particular, avoid national schools due to said schools being Malay-dominated and, especially in recent years, having an overwhelmingly muslim atmosphere.[1]

Secondary

Public secondary schools are regarded as extensions of the national schools. They study in five forms. Each form will take a year. Some students, however, will have to study in "Remove" before they can study in Form 1 because of the poor academic results. At the end of Form 3, the Penilaian Menengah Rendah (PMR, formerly known as Sijil Pelajaran Rendah (SRP) or Lower Certificate of Education (LCE)) or Lower Secondary Evaluation is taken by students. Based on results, they will be streamed into either the Science stream or Arts stream. The Science stream is generally more desirable. Students are allowed to shift to the Arts stream from the Science stream, but rarely vice-versa.

At the end of Form 5, students are required to take the Sijil Pelajaran Malaysia (SPM) or Malaysian Certificate of Education examination, before graduating from secondary school. The SPM was based on the old British ‘School Certificate’ examination before it became General Certificate of Education 'O' Levels examination, which became the GCSE (General Certificate of Secondary Education). As of 2006, students are given a GCE 'O' Level grade for their English paper in addition to the normal English SPM paper. (Previously, this was reported on result slips as a separate result labelled 1119, which meant students received two grades for their English papers.) This separate grade is given based on the marks of the essay-writing component of the English paper. The essay section of the English paper is remarked under the supervision of officials from British 'O' Levels examination . Although not part of their final certificates, the 'O' Level grade is included on their results slip.

Shortly after the release of the 2005 SPM results in March 2006, the Education Ministry announced it was considering reforming the SPM system due to what was perceived as over-emphasis on As. Local educators appeared responsive to the suggestion, with one professor at the University of Malaya deploring university students who could not write letters, debate, or understand footnoting. He complained that "They don't understand what I am saying. ... I cannot communicate with them." He claimed that "Before 1957 (the year of independence), school heroes were not those with 8As or 9As, they were the great debaters, those good in drama, in sport, and those leading the Scouts and Girl Guides." A former Education Director-General, Murad Mohd Noor, agreed, saying that "The rat race now begins at Standard 6 with the UPSR, with the competition resulting in parents forcing their children to attend private tuition." He also expressed dismay at the prevalence of students taking 15 or 16 subjects for the SPM, calling it "unnecessary".[2]

After receiving primary education in national-type primary school, some students may choose study in Chinese independent high school. In Chinese independent high schools however, students take a standardized test known as the Unified Examination Certificate (UEC). UEC has been run by the Dong Jiao Zhong (the association of Chinese school teachers and trustees) since 1975.

The UEC is available in three levels: Vocational Unified Exam (UEC-V), UEC Junior Middle Level (UEC-JML/JUEC) and Senior Middle Level (UEC-SML/SUEC). The syllabus and examinations for the UEC-V and UEC-JML are only available in the Chinese language. The UEC-SML has questions for mathematics, sciences (biology, chemistry and physics), bookkeeping, accounting and commerce in both Chinese and English. The difficulty of UEC-SML test papers is nearly equivalent to A-level except English.

Students in Chinese independent high school study in three junior middle levels and three senior middle levels. Each level usually take a year. Instead of five years in public secondary school, they have to study for six years. They are not allowed to be promoted to a higher level if they fail to pass the school examinations. They will have to study in the same level again in the next year. Those who fail to be promoted to a higher level after studying in the same level for three years will be dismissed from school. As a consequence, some students may take more than six years to finish their study in Chinese independent high school. At the end of Junior Middle Three, students are required to take UEC-JML. Some students will take PMR as well. UEC-JML is more difficult than PMR. Like the students in public secondary school, students in Chinese independent high school will also be streamed into either Science Stream or Art/Commerce Stream since they are in Senior Middle One. At the end of Senior Middle Two, some students choose to take SPM examination. They may leave Chinese independent high school after SPM examination. Some students, however, choose to further their study in Senior Middle Three. At the end of Senior Middle Three, they take UEC-SML.

UEC-SML is recognised as the entrance qualification in many tertiary educational institutions internationally like Singapore, Australia, Taiwan, China and some European countries, but not by the government of Malaysia for entry into public universities. However, most private colleges recognise it. In May 2004 the National Accreditation Board (LAN) required students entering local private colleges using any qualification other than the SPM to pass the SPM Malay paper. This drew protests and the then Higher Education Minister Dr Shafie Salleh exempted UEC students from this requirement.

Pre-University

After the SPM, students from public secondary school would have a choice of either studying Form 6 or the matriculation (pre-university). If they are accepted to continue studying in Form 6, they will also take the Sijil Tinggi Persekolahan Malaysia or Malaysian Higher School Certificate examination (its British equivalent is the General Certificate of Education 'A' Levels examination or internationally, the Higher School Certificate). Form 6 consists of two years of study which is known as Lower 6 (Tingkatan Enam Rendah) and Upper 6 (Tingkatan Enam Atas). The STPM is known to be more difficult than the GCE A levels, covering a broader and deeper scope in syllabus. Although it is generally taken by those desiring to attend public universities in Malaysia, it is internationally recognised and may also be used, though rarely required, to enter private local universities for undergraduate courses.

Additionally all students may apply for admission to matriculation which is a one or two-year programme run by the Ministry of Education. Previously, it was a one-year programme, but beginning 2006, 30% of all matriculation students were offered two-year programmes. Not all applicants for matriculation are admitted and the selection criteria are not publicly declared, which has led to speculation that any criteria existing may not be adhered to. A race-based quota is applied on the admission process, with 90% of the places being reserved for the bumiputeras, and the other 10% for the non-bumiputeras. The matriculation programme is not as rigorous as the STPM. The matriculation programme has come under some criticism as it is the general consensus that this programme is much easier than the sixth form programme leading to the STPM and serves to help Bumiputeras enter the public university easily. Having been introduced after the abolishment of racial quota based admission into universities, the matriculation programme continues the role of its predecessor, albeit in modified form. It is considered easier because in the matriculation program the teachers set and mark the final exams that their students sit, whereas in the STPM the final exam is standardised and exam papers are exchanged between schools in different states to ensure unbiased marking. Also, the matriculation programme adopts a semester basis examination (2 semesters in a year) whilst STPM involves only one final examination, covering all 2 years' syllabus in one go. The scope and depth of syllabus in matriculation is also lesser to that of STPM. The disparity between the programmes does not end there, for it is a known fact that in critical courses offered by local public universities (such as Medicine, Pharmacy, Dentistry and Law), almost 70% of the students comprise matriculation students. On the contrary, STPM students forms the majority in courses which are less in demand, such as a Bachelor in Science. Defenders of the matriculation programme have described the two programmes as distinct and different, drawing the analogy of an apple and an orange. However, having serve the same purpose (i.e. as an entrance requirement to Universities), the Malaysian public is criticising the matriculation programme as a blatant practice of double standards.

The Centre for Foundation Studies in Science, University of Malaya, offers 2 programmes only for Bumiputera students : i) The Science Program, a one year course under the Department of Higher Education, Ministry of Higher Education. After completing the program, the students are placed into various science-based courses in the local universities through the meritocracy system. ii) The Special Preparatory Program to Enter the Japanese Universities, a two year intensive programme under the Look East Policy Division of the Public Service Department of Malaysia in cooperation with the Japanese Government.

Some students undertake their pre-university studies in private colleges. They may opt for programmes such as the British 'A' Levels programme, the Canadian matriculation programme or the equivalent of other national systems - namely the Australian NSW Board of Studies Higher School Certificate and the American High School Diploma with AP subjects. More recently, the International Baccalaureate Diploma Programme is becoming more popular as a pre-university option.

The Government has claimed that admission to Universities are purely meritocracy based, but having so many different pre-university programmes and without a standard basis for comparison among the students, the public has been highly sceptical of the claim.

Offline iram

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Re: ملائشیا Malaysia
« Reply #3 on: April 20, 2008, 05:01:41 PM »
Tertiary

List of universities in Malaysia

Tertiary education in the public universities is heavily subsidised by the government. Applicants to public universities must have completed the Malaysia matriculation programme or have an STPM grade. Excellence in these examinations does not guarantee a place in a public university.The selection criteria are largely opaque as no strictly enforced defined guidelines exist.

In 2004, the government formed the Ministry of Higher Education to oversee tertiary education in Malaysia. The ministry is headed by Mustapa Mohamed.

Although the government announced a reduction of reliance of racial quotas in 2002, instead leaning more towards meritocracy. However, in 2004, 128 non-Malay or non-Bumiputra students with excellent results had their applications to study medicine at public universities denied.[verification needed] (See Issues in Malaysian Education.)

Prior to 2004, all lecturers in public tertiary institutions were required to have some post-graduate award as a requisite qualification. In October of 2004, this requirement was removed and the Higher Education Ministry announced that industry professionals who added value to a course could apply for lecturing positions directly to universities even if they did not have postgraduate qualifications. To head off possible allegations that the universities faced a shortage of lecturers, Deputy Higher Education Minister Datuk Fu Ah Kiow said "This is not because we are facing a shortage of lecturers, but because this move will add value to our courses and enhance the name of our universities...Let's say Bill Gates and Steven Spielberg, both well known and outstanding in their fields, want to be teaching professors. Of course, we would be more than happy to take them in." He went on to offer architecture as an example whereby well-known architects recognized for their talents did not have a masters degree.

The academic independence of public universities' faculty has been questioned. Critics like Bakri Musa cite examples such as a scientist who was reprimanded by Deputy Prime Minister Najib Razak for "publishing studies on air pollution", and a professor of mathematics at Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia who was reproved for criticising the government policy of teaching mathematics and science in English at the primary and secondary levels.[3]

Students also have the choice of attending private institutions of higher learning. Many of these institutions offer courses in cooperation with a foreign institute or university. Some of them are branch campuses of these foreign institutions.

Many private colleges offer programmes whereby the student does part of his degree course here and part of it in the other institution, this method is named "twinning". The nature of these programs is somewhat diverse and ranges from the full "twinning" program where all credits and transcripts are transferable and admission is automatic to programs where the local institution offers an "associate degree" which is accepted at the discretion of the partnering university. In the latter case, acceptance of transcripts and credits is at the discretion of the partner.

Some foreign universities and colleges have also set up branch campuses in Malaysia, including:

    * Monash University, Australia.
    * The University of Nottingham, United Kingdom
    * SAE Institute, Australia
    * Swinburne University of Technology, Australia
    * Curtin University of Technology, Australia

The net outflow of academics from Malaysia led to a "brain gain" scheme by then (1995) Prime Minister Datuk Seri Dr Mahathir Mohamed. The scheme set a target of attracting 5,000 talents annually. In 2004, Science, Technology and Innovation Minister, Datuk Dr Jamaluddin Jarjis in a parliamentary reply stated that the scheme attracted 94 scientists (24 Malaysians) in pharmacology, medicine, semi-conductor technology and engineering from abroad between 1995 and 2000. At the time of his reply, only one was remaining in Malaysia.

Postgraduate Programmes

Postgraduate degrees such as the Master of Business Administration (MBA) and the Doctor of Business Administration (DBA) are becoming popular and are offered by both the public universities and the private colleges.

All public and most private universities in Malaysia offer Master of Science degrees either through coursework or research and Doctor of Philosophy degrees through research.

Vocational Programmes and Polytechnics Schools

Besides the university degrees, students also have the option of continuing their education in professional courses such as the courses offered by the ICSA (Institute of Chartered Secretaries and Administrators) etc. Polytechnics in Malaysia provide courses for diploma level (3 years) and certificate level (2 years).

The following is a list of the public polytechnics in Malaysia.

    * Ungku Omar Polytechnic
    * Politeknik Sultan Haji Ahmad Shah
    * Politeknik Sultan Abdul Halim Muadzam Shah
    * Politeknik Kota Bharu
    * Politeknik Kuching Sarawak
    * Politeknik Port Dickson
    * Politeknik Kota Kinabalu
    * Politeknik Sultan Salahuddin Abdul Aziz Shah
    * Politeknik Johor Bahru
    * Politeknik Seberang Perai
    * Politeknik Kota, Melaka (Version)
    * Politeknik Kota, Kuala Terengganu
    * Politeknik Sultan Mizan Zainal Abidin
    * Politeknik Merlimau
    * Politeknik Sultan Azlan Shah
    * Politeknik Kulim
    * Politeknik Sultan Idris Shah
    * Politeknik Tuanku Syed Sirajuddin
    * Politeknik Muadzam Shah
    * Politeknik Mukah

Universities produce almost 150,000 skilled graduates annually.

Types of Schools in Malaysia

   
These are the different types of schools in Malaysia and their naming conventions.

National Schools (Sekolah Kebangsaan (SK) for primary schools, Sekolah Menengah Kebangsaan (SMK) for secondary schools)

Malay-medium schools where mother tongues are usually not taught. Sekolah Rendah Kebangsaan, acronym SRK is used for certain national type primary schools.

National Type/Charter Secondary/High Schools

Within the national public school system are a few magnet type/charter public high schools. Admissions are very selective, reserved for students who demonstrate outstanding academic achievement and potential at the elementary level, Grade/Standard 1 through 6. These schools are either full time day or boarding schools ('asrama penuh'). Examples of these schools is the Malacca High School, Royal Military College (Malaysia) and Penang Free School.

National Type Schools (Sekolah Jenis Kebangsaan (SJK) for primary schools, Sekolah Menengah Jenis Kebangsaan (SMJK) for secondary schools)

SJK is used for vernacular Chinese and Tamil primary schools. SMJK is only used for vernacular Chinese secondary schools because there are no vernacular Tamil secondary schools. Examples of these school are Jit Sin High School, Penang Chinese Girls' High School and Chung Ling High School.

Chinese primary schools are usually run by a Board of Governors. They make decision for the school but not in all matters. One matter is the running of school canteens (cafeterias) where the operator is appointed by the Education department. In 2004 Education Minister Datuk Hishamuddin Tun Hussein Onn stated this function would be returned to the Board but it has yet to occur.

Between 1995 and 2000, the Seventh Malaysia Plan allocation for primary education development allocated 96.5% to national primary schools which had 75% of total enrolment. Chinese primary schools (21% enrolment) received 2.4% of the allocation while Tamil primary schools (3.6% enrolment) received 1% of the allocation.

Despite lack of government financial assistance, most students from Chinese schools excel in standardised tests. Some students from other ethnic backgrounds enrol in Chinese schools for the supposed better education. Opposition politician Lim Guan Eng noted that the government refuses to fund Chinese primary schools despite the fact that 10% or 60,000 students are non-Chinese.[4]

Vision schools

Recently, attempts have been made to establish (Sekolah Wawasan) or vision schools. Vision schools share facilities with one or more national schools, ostensibly to encourage closer interaction. However most Chinese and Indian ethnic groups object it as they believe this will restrict the use of their mother tougue in schools.

In 2004, the Prime Minister said "the national school, the main catalyst for the integration process in the young generation, has begun to lose its popularity as a school of choice, particularly among Chinese students". He went on to say that only about two per cent of Chinese students attended national schools. [2]

In response, Datuk Dr Maximus Ongkili, Minister in the Prime Minister's Department, said that the seating arrangements of students, especially in primary schools, would be planned to allow for maximum interaction among the races. He also stated "The Education Department is looking at introducing National Integration as a subject in the school syllabus," and that "The composition of teachers too should also reflect the various races".[5]

Islamic Religious Schools (Sekolah Rendah Agama (SRA) is used for primary schools, Sekolah Menengah Agama (SMA) is used for secondary schools.)

Sekolah Pondok (literally, Hut school), Madrasah and other Islamic schools were the original schools in Malaysia. Early works of Malay literature such as Hikayat Abdullah mention these schools indicating they pre-date the current secular model of education. The earlier Hindu culture pre-dating the Islamic period of Malay history did not appear to spawn any formalised educational structure.

Another type of schools available in Malaysia is the Islamic religious schools or sekolah agama rakyat (SAR). The schools teach Muslim students subjects related to Islam such as early Islamic history, Arabic language and Fiqh. It is not compulsory though some states such as Johor make it mandatory for all Muslim children aged six to twelve to attend the schools as a complement to the mandatory primary education. In the final year, students will sit an examination for graduation. Most SAR are funded by respective states and managed by states' religious authority.

Previously, former Prime Minister Tun Mahathir Mohammad suggested to the government that the SARs should be closed down and integrated into the national schools. However, his proposal was met with resistance and later, the matter was left to die quietly.

Such schools still exist in Malaysia, but are generally no longer the only part of a child's education in urban areas. Students in rural parts of the country do still attend these schools. Since the academic results published by these schools are not accepted by mainline universities, many of these students have to continue their education in locations such as Pakistan or Egypt. Some of their alumni include Nik Adli (Son of PAS leader Nik Aziz).

Some parents also opt to send their children for religious classes after secular classes. Dharma classes, Sunday schools and after school classes at the mosque are various options available.

Private Schools (Primary and Secondary)

    * Other schools include International schools funded by other nationalities such as the International School of Kuala Lumpur by the United States and International School Indonesia.

    * Chinese Independent High School

Chinese Independent High Schools are independent secondary schools funded mostly by the Chinese public, led by Dong Jiao Zong.

Dong Jiao Zong's policy

A "Root" Chinese

According to UCSCAM (United Chinese School Committees Association of Malaysia), known as DJZ (Dong Jiao Zong - the stronghold/fortress of Chinese), it was the British colonial policy (1786-1957) allowing the vernacular language schools to exist and develop, at the same time enabling the Malays while placing restrictions on the Chinese. Students of British school gained better opportunities in employment than any other schools. Nevertheless, under such policy, the development of Chinese language education is thriving. Before Malaysia gained independency, the Chinese has had 1300 primary schools, nearly 100 high schools, and even a Nanyang University, built without the financial support of the government. The report of UCSCAM claimed that the main reason so many Chinese parents sending their children to Chinese school is that Chinese parents generally hope their next generation can become "A person that is like a Chinese people", with love and awareness of nation, love their own culture and traditions, ethnic pride, and most importantly to have ethnic "root".

Mr. Lin lian yu (Chinese:林连玉), known as the "Soul of ethnic Chinese" (Chinese:"族魂"), he is the former president of Chinese education, said: "One’s culture is the soul of one’s ethnic, its value as important as our lives." And if any of you (Chinese) want to inherit Chinese cultural heritage, and if any of you (Chinese) want to live a "root" Chinese, your children must be sent to Chinese school.

"Final goal"

The UCSCAM believed that the government of Malaysia is having a "final goal" to eradicate the Chinese schools and Tamil schools. The report claimed that the Government of Malaysia's culture and language education policy, over the past 50 years was, to not give up implementation of the "final goal", that is, only a final national origins of the school - "national school" with the Malay language (National language) as the main medium of instruction. The language of other ethnic groups, namely Chinese and Tamil, and so can only serve as a foreign language. The reason given by the government was that the Chinese and Tamil primary schools are the root cause of disunity of this country. In order to achieve "national unity", all other non-National Schools should be restricted on the development, and finally merge with the National School.

"Do not give up and do not compromise"

The standpoint of UCSCAM is, only the implementation of multilingualism origins of school policy is the answer to Malaysia's truly multi-ethnic, multi-cultural, multi-language, multi-religious multi-national situations. Dong Jiao Zong's distinctive position for this protest is unchanged over the last 50 years. Therefore, Dong Jiao Zong will continue to neither haughty nor humble in attitude, standing firm in maintaining the mother-tongue education, do not give up, do not compromise, ready to fight again for another 50 years. [3]

Offline iram

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Re: ملائشیا Malaysia
« Reply #4 on: April 20, 2008, 05:02:54 PM »


History

The Malay College at Kuala Kangsar, Perak, Malaysia.

Secular schools in Malaysia were largely an innovation of the British colonial government. There were two initial proposals for developing the national education system: the Barnes Report and the Fenn-Wu Report. The former proposal was implemented through the 1952 Education Ordinance.

Many of the earliest schools in Malaysia were started in the Straits Settlements of Penang, Melaka, and Singapore. The oldest school in Malaysia is the Penang Free School, founded in 1816, followed by Malacca High School. Many of these schools still carry with them an air of prestige although there is no formal difference between these schools and other schools.

British historian Richard O. Winstedt was concerned with the education of the Malays and he was instrumental in establishing Sultan Idris Training College. The college was established with the purpose of producing Malay teachers. R J Wilkinson, Winstedt predecessor on the other hand helped established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar in 1905 which aimed to educate the Malay elite.

Initially, the British colonial government did not provide for any Malay-medium secondary schools, forcing those who had studied in Malay during primary school to adjust to an English-medium secondary school. Many Malays opted to drop out instead.[6] Despite complaints about this policy, the British Director of Education stated:
“    It would be contrary to the considered policy of government to afford to a community, the great majority of whose members find congenial livelihood and independence in agricultural pursuits, more extended facilities for the learning of English which would be likely to have the effect of inducing them to abandon those pursuits.[7]    ”

Malay representatives in the Federal Council as well as the Legislative Council of Singapore responded vehemently, with one calling the British policy "a policy that trains the Malay boy how not to get employment" by excluding the Malays from learning in the "bread-earning language of Malaya". He remarked:
“    In the fewest possible words, the Malay boy is told 'You have been trained to remain at the bottom, and there you must always remain!' Why, I ask, waste so much money to attain this end when without any vernacular school, and without any special effort, the Malay boy could himself accomplish this feat?[8]    ”

Eventually, to remedy this problem, the British established the Malay College Kuala Kangsar. However, it was mainly intended as a way to educate future low-level civil servants, and not as a means to opening the doors of commerce to the Malays — the school was never intended to prepare students for entrance to higher institutions of education.[9]

Mission schools

Roman Catholic missionaries of the Josephian order also started a series of "mission schools" and many of these schools still stand and carry the names of various Roman Catholic saints. Due to government intolerance of non-Muslim views in the public space, none of these schools have brothers any more only SMJK Katholik, Petaling Jaya (Catholic High School, Petaling Jaya has a residance for a few Marist Brothers outside the school. There are also a series of convents which originally housed nuns but had a school attached to provide education to young girls. The education of young ladies at that time was considered very revolutionary. Similar to the brother schools, many of these convents no longer house nuns and so are convents in name only. The Lasallian Brothers also started a series of schools in Malaysia and Singapore. Some of these schools include St Xavier's in Penang, St. Francis Institution in Malacca, St Michael's in Ipoh, St Paul's in Seremban, St. George's Institution in Taiping and St John's Institution in Kuala Lumpur. Most of these schools still have at least one Lasallian Brother as a Chairman of the Board of Governors.

The Methodist Church in Malaysia also established a set of mission schools and these schools carry the name ACS (Anglo-Chinese School) and MGS (Methodist Girls School). The Methodist schools still maintain a single private school called Methodist College. Mission schools are largely single gender institutions while most government schools are mixed gender schools.

The Anglican Church in Malaysia established a number of schools such as St Mary’s in Kuala Lumpur and St Mary's in Kuching which is the Oldest School in Sarawak.

School uniforms

Malaysia introduced Western style school uniforms (pakaian seragam sekolah) in the late 19th century during the British colonial era. Today, school uniforms are almost universal in the public and private school systems. Public school uniforms are compulsory for all students and standardised nationwide.

A common version of Malaysian school uniform is of public schools. The dress code for males is the most standardised while female uniforms are more varied based on the ethnicity of students and the type of schools. Male students are required to wear a collared shirt with a pair of shorts or long pants. Female student students, however, may wear a knee-length pinafore and a collared shirt, a knee-length skirt and a collared shirt, or a baju kurung consisting of a top and a long skirt with an optional hijab (tudung) for Malay students. White socks and shoes of black or white are almost universally required for all students, while ties are included in certain dress codes. Prefects and students with other additional school duties may wear uniforms of different colours; colours may also differ between primary and secondary schools.

Education and politics

Education is largely politicised in Malaysia to the extent that every Prime Minister, excluding the first Prime Minister (Tunku Abdul Rahman Putra al-Haj), has at one time or another been the education minister.

The ruling political alliance is composed of ethnically based parties and one of the concessions allowed by the controlling Malay party is to allow the Chinese and Indian parties to start colleges.

In July 2006, Higher Education Deputy Minister Datuk Ong Tee Keat stated that a review of the controversial Universities and University Colleges Act (UUCA) will be held among Malaysian MPs.[10]

National Education Blueprint

In 2006, the National Education Blueprint 2006–10 was released. The Blueprint set a number of goals, such as establishing a National Pre-School Curriculum, setting up 100 new classes for students with special needs, increasing the percentage of single-session schools to 90% for primary schools and 70% for secondary schools, and decreasing class sizes from 31 to 30 students in primary schools and from 32 to 30 in secondary schools by the year 2010. The Blueprint also provided a number of statistics concerning weaknesses in education. According to the Blueprint, 10% of primary schools and 1.4% of secondary schools do not have a 24-hour electricity supply, 20% and 3.4% respectively do not have a public water supply, and 78% and 42% are over 30 years old and require refurbishing. It was also stated that 4.4% of primary students and 0.8% of secondary students had not mastered the 3Rs (reading, writing and arithmetic). The drop-out rate for secondary schools was given as 9.3% in urban areas and 16.7% in rural areas.[11]

The Blueprint also aimed to address the problem of racial polarisation in schools. Under the Blueprint, schools will hold seminars on the Constitution of Malaysia, motivational camps to increase cultural awareness, food festivals to highlight different ethnic cooking styles, and essay competitions on different cultural traditions. Mandarin and Tamil language classes will be held in national schools, beginning with a pilot project in 220 schools in 2007.[12]

The Blueprint has been subject to some criticism. Academic Khoo Kay Kim has criticised the plan, saying:
“    We do not need this blueprint to produce excellent students. What we need is a revival of the old education system... meaning the education system we had before 1957. That was when we saw dedication from the teachers. The Malaysian education system then was second to none in Asia. We did not have sports schools but we produced citizens who were Asian class, if not world class.[13]    ”

Issues in Malaysian Education

    For more details on this topic, see Issues in Malaysian Education.

Language issues

The issue of language and schools is a key issue for many political groups in Malaysia. UMNO championed the cause of Malay usage in schools but private schools using the Chinese and Tamil language are allowed. Up until 1981 in Peninsular Malaysia (and some years later in Sarawak), there were also English-medium schools, set up by Christian missions. However, following the severe race riots in Kuala Lumpur in May 1969, English-medium schools were phased out from January 1970, so that by 1982 these became Malay-medium schools (‘national schools’).

The existence of vernacular schools is used by non-Malays components of the ruling Barisan Nasional to indicate that their culture and identity have not been infringed upon by the Malay people. This is often a key issue as it is considered important by many. Dong Jiao Zhong (the association of Chinese vernacular school boards and teachers) and other such organizations still shape much of the views of the Chinese educated community, which is a key electoral constituency.

In 2002, the government announced that from 2003 onwards, the teaching of Science and Mathematics would be done in English, in order to ensure that Malaysia will not be left behind in a world that was rapidly becoming globalized. This paved the way for the establishment of mixed-medium education.

Due to the lack of Chinese students attending government schools, coupled with the number of non-Chinese students attending Chinese vernacular schools, the government announced in April 2005 that all national schools will begin teaching Chinese and Tamil, not as mother tongue course but as elective course.

Gender issues and education

In 2004 the UNDP (United Nations Development Programme) representative Dr. Richard Leete stated that Malaysia's ranking in the UNDP gender index was not "as high as it should be". Former Higher Education Minister Datuk Dr Shafie Salleh replied that it was not unique to Malaysia. His quoted statistics revealed that there was a 2:1 ratio of boys to girls in polytechnics and at public higher learning institutions. However it should be noted that in virtually all developed countries that both females and males enter university in approximately equal ratios, thus the 2:1 ratio in Malaysia is seen as rather peculiar when placed in a global context.

Malaysian polytechnics and community colleges are not degree producing institutions and none have post-graduate programmes. Most are vocational or technical institutions. This imbalance is corrected once the respective genders leave the educational system.

Racial polarisation in schools

Due to the existence of vernacular schools, there exist worries that students are not interacting enough with those of other races. Racial polarisation is very prevalent in the Malaysian education system, with students grouping together according to their race. Although many measures have been taken to reduce this polarisation, the students of different races usually work together, but play with their own kind. The Culture, Arts and Heritage Minister Rais Yatim said in an interview that racial polarisation existed due to the existence of national-type schools, and that national schools had failed due to the prevalence of Muslim rites.

The tuition phenomenon

The prevalence of tuition centres in urban areas of Malaysia is also an issue of growing concern. Students in urban areas generally go to tuition centres, due to pressure by parents to do well or unable to cope up with the standard of the current education. The tuition industry is in itself extremely large, and was reported to be worth about RM 4 billion.[14] There is also the problem where tuition centres offer 'crash courses' for most of the central exams where they offer 'leaked questions'. These leaked questions are usually obtained by unscrupulous means, but so far the control of leaked questions by the government has been reasonable, with an average of only one or two leaks every year.[15]

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List of universities in Malaysia (study in malysia)
« Reply #5 on: April 20, 2008, 05:07:23 PM »
List of universities in Malaysia

Public universities

    *  University of Malaya (UM) [1]
    *  Universiti Sains Malaysia (USM) [2]
    *  Universiti Teknologi Mara (UiTM) [3]
    *  Universiti Kebangsaan Malaysia (UKM) [4]
    *  Universiti Putra Malaysia (UPM) [5]
    *  Universiti Teknologi Malaysia (UTM) [6]
    *  International Islamic University Malaysia (IIUM) [7]
    *  Universiti Utara Malaysia (UUM) [8]
    *  Universiti Malaysia Sarawak (UNIMAS) [9]
    *  Universiti Malaysia Sabah (UMS) [10]
    *  Universiti Malaysia Kelantan (UMK) [11]
    *  Universiti Malaysia Pahang (UMP) [12] (formerly Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan dan Teknologi Malaysia or KUKTEM)
    *  Universiti Malaysia Perlis (UniMAP) [13] (formerly Kolej Universiti Kejuruteraan Utara Malaysia or KUKUM)
    *  Universiti Malaysia Terengganu (UMT) [14] (formerly Kolej Universiti Sains dan Teknologi Malaysia or KUSTEM)
    *  Universiti Darul Iman Malaysia (UDM) [15] (formerly Kolej Ugama Sultan Zainal Abidin or KUSZA)
    *  Universiti Pendidikan Sultan Idris (UPSI) [16] (formerly Maktab Perguruan Sultan Idris)
    *  Universiti Pertahanan Nasional Malaysia (UPNM) [17] (formerly Akademi Tentera Malaysia or ATMA)
    *  Universiti Sains Islam Malaysia (USIM) [18] (formerly Kolej Universiti Islam Malaysia or KUIM)
    *  Universiti Teknikal Malaysia Melaka (UTeM) [19] (formerly Kolej Universiti Teknikal Kebangsaan Malaysia or KUTKM)
    *  Universiti Tun Hussein Onn Malaysia (UTHM) [20] (formerly Kolej Universiti Teknologi Tun Hussein Onn or KUiTTHO)

Private universities

    *  AIMST University [21]
    *  International Medical University (IMU)
    *  Limkokwing University Of Creative Technology (LUCT) [22]
    *  Malaysia University of Science & Technology (MUST) [23]
    *  Management & Science University (MSU) (formerly University College of Technology & Management Malaysia or KUTPM) [24]
    *  Multimedia University (MMU)
    *  Open University Malaysia (OUM)
    *  Universiti Teknologi Petronas (UTP) (formerly The Institute of Technology Petronas or ITP)
    *  Universiti Tenaga Nasional (UNITEN)
    *  Universiti Tun Abdul Razak (UNITAR)
    *  Universiti Tunku Abdul Rahman (UTAR)
    *  Universiti Kuala Lumpur (UniKL)
    *  Universiti Industri Selangor (UNISEL) [25]
    *  Wawasan Open University (WOU) [26]
    *  Al-Madinah International University (MEDIU) [27]

Foreign universities, Malaysia campus

    *  Curtin University of Technology Sarawak Campus
    *  Monash University Malaysia Campus
    *  Swinburne University of Technology Sarawak Campus
    *  University of Nottingham Malaysia Campus

University Colleges

    *  Asia Pacific University College of Technology & Innovation (UCTI)[28]
    *  Binary University College of Management & Entrepreneurship [29]
    *  Cosmopoint International University College (CiUC) [30] (formerly Cosmopoint College of Technology)
    *  Cyberjaya University College of Medical Sciences (CUCMS)
    *  HELP University College [31]
    *  International University College Of Technology Twintech (IUCTT)
    *  INTI International University College (INTI-UC)[32]
    *  Kolej Universiti Islam Antarabangsa Selangor (KUIS)
    *  Kolej Universiti Insaniah (KUIN)
    *  Kuala Lumpur Infrastructure University College (KLIUC) [33]
    *  Nilai International University College
    *  Sunway University College
    *  TATI University College (TATiUC) [34]
    *  Taylor's University College
    *  University College Sedaya International (UCSI)

Private colleges

    *  Advance Tertiary College (ATC)
    *  ALFA International College (formerly Alif Creative Academy)
    *  Asia Pacific Institute of Information Technology (APIIT)
    *  Brickfields Asia College (BAC)
    *  Bostonweb College
    *  Cosmopoint Institute of Information Technology
    *  Creative Academy
    *  Cybernetics International College of Technology
    *  Disted-Stamford College (DISTED)
    *  Excel College of Training & Development
    *  Gulf Golden International Flying Academy (GGIFA)
    *  Han Chiang College
    *  HELP International College of Technology (HICT)
    *  IKIP College
    *  Informatics College
    *  Institut Prima Bestari, Kota Kinabalu
    *  Institut Kompas (Business & Accounting College)
    *  International College of Music (ICOM)
    *  International Islamic College
    *  INTI College Subang Jaya
    *  INTI International College Penang
    *  INTI Genting International College
    *  INTI College Sabah
    *  INTI College Sarawak
    *  Island College of Technology
    *  Kasturi College
    *  KBU International College (KBU)
    *  KDU College
    *  Kolej Negeri
    *  Kolej Shahputra
    *  Putra Intelek
    *  Kolej Teknologi Timur
    *  Kolej Tuanku Ja'afar
    *  Kolej WIT
    *  Kolej Yayasan Melaka
    *  Kolej Yayasan UEM (formerly Kolej Matrikulasi Yayasan Saad)
    *  Legenda Group of Colleges
    *  Life College
    *  MAHSA College
    *  Malaysia France Institute
    *  Malaysian Institute of Art (MIA)
    *  Malaysia Institute of Integrative Media (MIIM)
    *  Malaysian Institute of Management (MIM)
    *  Mantissa Institute
    *  Masterskill College of Nursing and Health
    *  McOrange College
    *  Melaka Manipal Medical College
    *  Methodist College Kuala Lumpur (MCKL)
    *  Metropolitan College
    *  MIDAS Group of Colleges
    *  MIM-IMS Management School
    *  MTDC Multimedia Academy
    *  Multimedia College (MMC) (formally Telekom Training College, TTC)
    *  New Era College
    *  Nilam College
    *  Nirwana Institute
    *  Olympia College
    *  Pacific College
    *  Penang International Dental College
    *  Penang Medical College
    *  Penang Skills Development Centre
    *  PJ College of Art and Design
    *  PTPL College
    *  Reliance College
    *  RIMA College
    *  Sabah Institute of Art
    *  SAE Institute Malaysia
    *  SAL Group of Colleges (SAL)
    *  SEGi College
    *  Southern College
    *  Stamford College
    *  Tunku Abdul Rahman College (TARC)
    *  The One Academy
    *  TPM Academy
    *  United College Sarawak (UCS)
    *  Westminster International College
    *  World-Point Academy of Tourism