Library Sindh Study FG Study quiz Punjab Study
PakStudy :Yours Study Matters

Hongkong

Offline Haji Hasan

  • *****
  • 725
  • +4/-1
  • Gender: Male
Hongkong
« on: December 09, 2007, 09:18:49 PM »

 Hongkong ہانگ كانگ

ہانگ كانگ كا دارالحكومت وكٹوریہ ہے۔ یہ برطانوی كالونی ہے۔ یہاں كا پاسپورٹ برٹش  پاسپورٹ كہلاتا ہے۔

 برطانیہ كے دائرہ اختیار میں ہے۔ 1998ئ كے بعد یہ چین كے دائرہ اختیار میں آ چکا ہے ۔ یہاں كی كرنسی ہانگ كانگ ڈالر ہے۔ یہاں كی زبان چینی ہے یہ دنیا كا سب  سے بڑا شاپنگ سنٹر ہے۔ یہاں پر دس ہزار شاپنگ سنٹر ہیں۔ ہانگ كانگ میں جرائم پیشہ  لوگ دندناتے پھرتے ہیں۔ كیونكہ یہاں پولیس كی رہائی ناممكن ہے۔

وہ لوگ جن كو ویزا كی ضرورت نہیں

ہانگ كانگ كے شہری، برطانیہ كے شہری، شہریت یافتہ افراد۔

مندرجہ ذیل ممالك كے لوگوں كو زیادہ سے زیادہ ایك ماہ انٹری دی جاتی ہے۔

بلوویا، كوسٹ  رائس، ایل سلوا ڈور ، فن لینڈ، جرمنی، یونان، گوئٹے مالا، ہاوٕنڈرس ، آئس لینڈ ، میكسیكو  ، مراكو، نیپال، نكارا گوا، پاكستان، پانامہ، تیونس، امریكہ، یورا گوائے۔ تھائی لینڈ كے شہری ٤١ دن تك رہ سكتے ہیں۔

مندرجہ ذیل ممالك كے لوگوں كو تین ماہ سے زیادہ كا ویزا انٹری دیا جائے گا۔

انڈورا،  آسٹریلیا، آسٹریا، بنگلہ دیش، باربوداس، بلجیم، برازیل، برونائی، كینیڈا، چلی، كولمبیا، ڈنمارك، فجی، فرانس، گیمبیا، غانا، اسرائیل، اٹلی، كینیا، لكسمبرگ، نیدر لینڈ، ماریشیش ، نیوزی لینڈ ، نكارا گوا، ناروے، سپین، سری لنكا۔

پاكستان سے بہت سے لوگ ہانگ كانگ میں كام كے سلسلہ میں رہائش پذیر ہے۔ ویزا كی مدت ختم ہونے كے بعد آپ كا قیام غیر قانونی ہوتاہے۔ مگر لوگ وہاں كے پرانے رہائشی جو كہ ہندوستان ، سری لنكا، اور نزدیكی ممالك سے تعلق ركھتے ہیں اور جن كو برطانوی پاسپورٹ ہانگ كانگ مل چكا ہے ان سے شناختی كارڈ حاصل كر لیتے ہیں اور اس پر اپنی تصویر لگا لیتے ہیں یا انہی لوگوں كے ذریعے سے ورك پرمٹ بنوا لیتے ہیں یا ایسے علاقوں میں رہائش ركھتے ہیں جو دارالحكومت سے دور ہوں اور ہاں پر چیكنگ كم ہو۔ وہاں پر رہائش ركھ لیتے ہیں اور وہاں كام كرتے ہیں۔ محنت مزدوری كا كام ملتا ہے۔

 عام طور پر پاكستانی دس سے پندرہ ہزار روپے كما لیتے ہیں۔ اور جب تك چیك نہ ہوں اس وقت تك سكون سے رہتے ہیں۔

پاكستان سے پاكستانی پاسپورٹ پر انٹری كافی مشكل سے ملتی ہے۔ ویزا اگر یہاں لگوا كر جائیں تو بھی دقت پیش آتی ہے۔ ویسے On Arrival ویزا ہے۔ اپنے كاروبار، اپنے مقصد ، اپنی رہائش اور مدت رہائش كے بارے میں متعلقہ آفیسر كو مطمئن كرنا پڑتا ہے۔ اس كے اطمینان پر ہی آپ كو چند دنوں كے لیے ویزا جاری كیا جاتا ہے۔

نوٹ :

 چین كی دائرہ كار میں چلے جانے كے بعد ابھی تك كوئی قانون سامنے نہیں آیا جس سے اندازہ لگایا جا سكے۔ اس لیے جب تك نیا قانون نہیں آتا پرانے امیگریشن قوانین ہی چلتےرہیں گے۔
 
[/size]



Hong Kong
Chinese: , officially the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region [pronunciation], is one of the two special administrative regions of the People's Republic of China (PRC), the other being Macau. The territory lies on the eastern side of the Pearl River Delta, bordering Guangdong province in the north and facing the South China Sea in the east, west and south. Beginning as a trading port in the 19th century, Hong Kong has developed into a leading financial centre.

Hong Kong was a crown colony of the United Kingdom from 1842 until the transfer of its sovereignty to the People's Republic of China in 1997. The Sino-British Joint Declaration and the Basic Law of Hong Kong stipulate that Hong Kong operates with a high degree of autonomy until at least 2047, fifty years after the transfer. Under the policy of "one country, two systems", the Central People's Government is responsible for the territory's defence and foreign affairs, while the Government of Hong Kong is responsible for its own legal system, police force, monetary system, customs policy, immigration policy, and delegates to international organizations and events.

Education

The University of Hong Kong
The University of Hong Kong
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Hong Kong University of Science and Technology
Hong Kong Polytechnic University with view of Cross Harbour Bus Stop
Hong Kong Polytechnic University with view of Cross Harbour Bus Stop

Main article: Education in Hong Kong

A former Crown colony, Hong Kong's education system has roughly followed the system of the United Kingdom, and in particular, the education system in England. At the higher education levels, both British and American systems exist. The University of Hong Kong (HKU), the oldest institution of tertiary education in Hong Kong, has traditionally been based on the British model but has incorporated elements of the American model in recent years. The second oldest university, Chinese University of Hong Kong (CUHK), follows the American model with a characteristically British college system. The Hong Kong University of Science and Technology (HKUST) was established on the American model of higher education. There are nine public universities in Hong Kong, and a number of private higher institutions. Lingnan University (LU) in Tuen Mun is the only university in Hong Kong that provides Liberal Arts Education.

Hong Kong's public schools are operated by the Education Department. The system features a non-compulsory three-year kindergarten, followed by a compulsory six-year primary education, three-year junior secondary education; a non-compulsory two-year senior secondary education leading to the Hong Kong Certificate of Education Examinations and a two-year matriculation course leading to the Hong Kong Advanced Level Examinations.[43] A new "3+3+4" curriculum, consisting of a three-year junior secondary, three-year senior secondary and four-year undergraduate academic system, will be implemented from 2009 (for senior secondary) and 2012 (for tertiary) onwards. There are also tertiary institutions offering various Bachelor's, Master's, and Doctoral degrees, other higher diplomas, and associate degree courses.

Most comprehensive schools in Hong Kong fall under three categories: Public schools, subsidised schools and private schools. Public schools are rare, and subsidised schools are the most common, which include government aids and grant schools, run by charitable organisations often with religious affiliations. The majority of such religious affiliations are Christian, but there are also Buddhist, Daoist (Taoist), Islamic and Confucian ones as well. Meanwhile, private schools, often run by Christian organisations, have admissions based on academic merit rather than on financial resources. Outside this system are the schools under the Direct Subsidy Scheme (DSS) and private international schools.

The Programme for International Student Assessment, coordinated by the OECD, currently ranks Hong Kong's education as the 2nd best in the world.[44]

Culture

Main article: Culture of Hong Kong

Hong Kong is frequently described as a place where East meets West, a meeting reflected in its inhabitants, their customs, economic infrastructure, education and culture. British rule may have ended in 1997 but Western culture is deeply ingrained in Hong Kong and coexists seamlessly with traditional philosophy and practices of the Chinese. On one street corner, there may be traditional Chinese shops selling Chinese herbal medicine, Buddhist paraphernalia or bowls of synthetic shark fin soup, but around the next, one may find theatres showing the latest Hollywood blockbuster, an English-style pub, or a Catholic Church. Hong Kong's official languages are Cantonese and English; signs in both languages are omnipresent throughout Hong Kong. The government, police and most workplaces and stores conduct business bilingually.

While Hong Kong is a global centre of trade, another famous export is its entertainment industry, particularly in the martial arts genre which gained a high level of popularity in the late 1960s and 1970s. Several Hollywood performers originate from Hong Kong cinema, notably Bruce Lee, Chow Yun-Fat, and Jackie Chan. A number of Hong Kong filmmakers have also achieved widespread fame in Hollywood, such as John Woo, Wong Kar-wai and Tsui Hark. Homegrown films such as Chungking Express, Infernal Affairs, Shaolin Soccer, Rumble in the Bronx, Eros and In the Mood for Love have also gained international recognition. Hong Kong is also the world's main hub for Cantopop music.

The Hong Kong government also supports cultural institutions such as the Hong Kong Heritage Museum, Hong Kong Museum of Art, the Hong Kong Academy for Performing Arts and the Hong Kong Philharmonic Orchestra. Furthermore, the government's Leisure and Cultural Services Department also subsidises and sponsors international performers brought to Hong Kong. Many international cultural activities are organised by the government, consulates and privately.

Religion

Main article: Religion in Hong Kong

Hong Kong enjoys a high degree of religious freedom, a right enshrined and protected through its constitutional document, the Basic Law. The majority of Hong Kong's population (90%) practise a mix of local religions,[45] Buddhism (mainly Chinese Mahayana) alongside with Taoism.[46][47][48][49][50] but according to the International Religious Freedom Report 2007 from U.S. Department of States; there are only 700 thousand Buddhists or Taoists.[51] Buddhists and Taoists share a common background of Confucian theory, Chinese folk religion (worship of folk deities and figures of Chinese mythology) and ancestor worship.

A sizable Christian community of around 560,000 local adherents (320 thousand Protestant Christians, 240 thousand Roman Catholics)[52] to 660,000 exists (if including over 100 thousand Filipino Catholics)[53], forming about 8% to 9% of the total population; it is roughly equally divided between Catholics and Protestants. Apart from the major religions, there are also a significant number of followers of other religions, including an estimated 90,000 Muslims; 22,000 members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints[54]; 4,000 Jews; 4,600 Jehovah's Witnesses and a number of Hindus, Sikhs and Bahá'ís[55]. Apart from offering religious instructions, many major religious bodies have established schools and provided social welfare facilities.
Hong Kong's religious beliefs are tied to the region's early role as a fishing community. Tin Hau, the protector of seafarers, has been honoured with several temples throughout Hong Kong for at least 300 years. Hong Kong residents, especially elder generations, visit Taoist or Buddhist temples to appease the deities and, usually, to request compassion, good health or good fortune. Gifts of food, and in particular fruit, are presented, and incense and paper offerings are burnt in respect.

With the transfer of Hong Kong to the PRC, there were significant concerns over religious freedom in Hong Kong. So far, this has proved mostly unfounded. Despite the banning of the Falun Gong movement by Beijing in 1999, adherents are still free to practice in Hong Kong. Similarly, the Catholic Church freely appoints its own bishops in Hong Kong, unlike on mainland China where the only approved 'Catholic' institution is the Chinese Patriotic Catholic Association where bishops and priests are appointed by Beijing (though there is also an unofficial and illegal part of the Catholic church that maintains contact with the Vatican). A significant issue in the normalisation of ties between the PRC and the Vatican is Beijing's insistence that the Vatican drops its diplomatic ties with the ROC.